Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 1
In the domestic and foreign scientific literature, there is a wide discussion regarding the indicators for assessing the physical availability of food. At the same time, it should be understood that the main goal of assessing the physical availability of food is to obtain objective information about the availability of retail, public catering and transport accessibility. The purpose of this study is to substantiate the system of indicators characterizing the physical availability of food at the national level and to develop a methodological approach to the formation of an integral index of the physical availability of food for the population of Russia. The need to develop such an indicator is due to the heterogeneity of the indicators used for evaluation, the lack of aggregate and intermediate integral indicators that characterize the level of physical availability of food. It is possible that the development of an integral indicator for assessing the physical availability of food at the national level will become the basis for comparing the Russian indicator with foreign ones. The study attempted to form a cumulative integral index characterizing the level of physical availability of food, which in turn consists of integral indices of the availability and provision of retail and public catering facilities, and transport accessibility. In turn, these indices consist of sub-indices calculated using the proposed methodological approach based on publicly available statistical indicators and having a logical connection with them. The proposed methodological approach is based on the use of the method of the sum of weighted arithmetic mean group indicators, the use of which is justified in this study. The proposed methodological approach has been tested by calculations that have a logical connection with the actual indicators of Rosstat, which characterize the level of physical availability of food.
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 2
Disease outbreaks and global pandemics pose the greatest threat to humanity and the sustainability of global economic development. In 2019, the world faced a pandemic caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19). Given the extraordinary nature of the situation associated with the need to overcome the consequences of the pandemic, Governments have taken measures to support both the population and the economy of their countries as a whole. The main measures limiting the spread of the virus included social distancing, self-isolation of the population and travel restrictions. All these measures to combat the pandemic have had a significant impact on the main sectors of the economy, including the agricultural sector. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy that ensures the country's food security. Social and economic constraints during the COVID-19 pandemic created disruptions in the food supply chain on the world market, leading to disruption in the production and distribution of agri-food products, exacerbating the shortage of labor and resources. As part of the implementation of measures to overcome the consequences of the pandemic, countries provided state support to producers of agri-food products, a number of countries imposed restrictions on food exports in order to support domestic producers. The article examines the effects of the COVID-19 virus on food systems, provides mechanisms of state support for producers of agri-food products during the coronavirus pandemic. The assessment of the state of the Russian agricultural sector in the conditions of a pandemic is given, the measures taken by the government to protect domestic agriculture in the conditions of COVID-19 are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanisms of state support of agriculture in different countries of the world. The crisis associated with overcoming the consequences of the pandemic proved the need for additional measures of state support for the agricultural sector, including through direct financing of producers of agricultural products
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 3
The stable price system is one of the key aspects of ensuring the balanced development of the agricultural sector and increasing its investment attractiveness. The profitability of agricultural production and the possibility of increasing the volume of investment resources depends on the emerging level of prices for agricultural products and the price ratio between different areas of agriculture. In addition, the level of food inflation and the dynamics of real disposable incomes of the population also have an impact on the stable functioning of the agri-food market and on the volume of additional revenue of producers. This article analyzes the key price factors that influence the investment attractiveness of the agricultural sector of the economy. In recent years, as a result of the global crisis caused by the pandemic, as well as the aggravated geopolitical situation in 2022 and the sanctions pressure on the domestic economy, there have been significant price fluctuations in various areas of agriculture and the consumer market. The author notes that in recent years there has been an increase in price disparity between agriculture and other branches of the agro-industrial complex, faster growth rates of agricultural organizations' costs and changes in their structure in terms of increasing costs for material means of production, as well as the decrease in the share of agricultural producers in the structure of retail prices for certain types of products. The article analyzes the price situation in the agro-food market of the regions of the Russia in the period 2017-2022. The author has compiled the rating of the country's regions based on the calculation of the parity ratio of prices of agricultural producers with other branches of the agro-industrial complex and consumer prices for food. The article also identifies the main negative trends in the system of prices and price relations in the agro-industrial complex and suggests the main measures to ensure a stable price situation in the agro-food market
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 4
The article explores the modern development strategy of the European Union (EU) for implementing innovations in agriculture. The structure of the EU's innovation system is analyzed at both macro and micro levels. Special attention is given to the role of the micro level, where farmers, universities, research institutes, companies, and other stakeholders actively participate. The study demonstrates that collaborative interaction and coordination among participants at the micro level are key factors for successful implementation of innovations in EU agriculture
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 5
The issues of attracting investments are the main ones in the socio-economic development of regions, territories and economic entities in the existing market realities. The development of the modern economy, due to the use of new information technologies, on the one hand, open up new opportunities for investment, on the other – increase risks, which determines the need to assess the investment climate and investment attractiveness of regions and industries as investment objects to a greater extent. The article discusses methodological approaches to assessing the investment attractiveness of agriculture in the regions of Russia, based on foreign and domestic experience.
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 6
ORGANIZATION OF PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS WITH MACHINERY AND ITS SERVICE IN SOME EAEU COUNTRIES
The article is devoted to the study of the experience of organizing the provision of agricultural machinery to agricultural producers and its maintenance in the EAEU countries that produce agricultural machinery on their territory and are ahead of Russia in providing agricultural producers with certain types of equipment. Such countries are the Republics of Belarus and Kazakhstan, and their experience can be useful for improving the organization of providing agricultural producers with equipment and its service in Russia. The article presents the following data on the Republics of Belarus and Kazakhstan: the availability of agricultural machinery production on the territory of the republics and dependence on the supply of imported agricultural machinery; the provision of agricultural producers of the republics with machinery and state support provided in order to increase the availability of such agricultural machinery; the level of organization of service aimed at ensuring the operability of agricultural machinery in these republics; types of inter-farm use of agricultural machinery in the republics. As a result of the analysis and expert assessment of the organization of providing agricultural producers with machinery and its maintenance in the Republics of Belarus and Kazakhstan, the main directions of solving these problems in Russia have been identified, taking into account the experience of these republics.
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 7
The article focuses on the insufficient consumption of food by the population with low incomes in comparison with rational norms and the average Russian level. The main components of food security have been clarified, which include physical and economic accessibility, as well as the quality of food. The level of criteria for food security of the Russia actually achieved in 2021 is indicated. The volume of consumption of basic foodstuffs by the poor population is compared with rational norms and with the average level in Russia in 2021. During the ten-year period of research (2011-2021), there was an increase in consumption for individual products in the local markets of the regions of the Central Black Earth Region and in the whole of the Russian Federation. The consumption of basic foodstuffs during the pandemic (2019-2021) was analyzed, the difference in consumption levels on average in the Russia and in certain regions of the Central Black Earth Region was noted. A comparative assessment of the structure of energy value and composition of nutrients in the products of the poor population group in 2011 and 2021 is presented. Based on the comparative analysis of the structure of expenditures of the poor population group on food and the average Russian, a general conclusion is made about their comparability, while there are discrepancies in individual products. The list of the main measures to improve the food supply of the population with incomes below the poverty line is presented
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 8
ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE FUNCTIONING OF THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY MARKET AND ITS MAINTENANCE IN MODERN CONDITIONS
The study is devoted to the economic assessment of the impact of the transformation of the global agri-food market and sanctions pressure on the material and technical support of agriculture in Russia in the context of industries and sub-sectors. The authors investigated the dynamics of maintenance and repair costs over the past 5 years and identified specific features of the impact of market conditions on the crop and livestock industries. Analysis of the cost of spare parts per 1 hectare of crops allowed us to determine the periods of the highest growth rate and identify the factors that determine the origin of these extremes. A differentiated assessment of the costs of technical service of the machine and tractor fleet in crop production in the context of crops has been carried out and the main specific trends in each direction of the agricultural business have been identified. In addition, the dynamics of maintenance and repair costs in the main sub-sectors of animal husbandry is estimated
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 9
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIALIZATION OF VARIOUS FORMS OF MANAGEMENT IN RURAL LOCAL ECONOMY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF P(F)F AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS)
The specialization of different categories of farms is an important factor in their development, however, this area of research in its significance remains secondary. The assumption that producers prefer the most profitable types of products implies that the highest-income households should specialize in the products of the most profitable industries. In this regard, it is important to assess the specialization of the selected categories of farms (peasant (farm) households and agricultural organizations) in the context of the income they receive. The analysis showed that these are the branches of livestock products, in the production of which mainly agricultural organizations specialize. Entry into these markets is limited by a higher labor and capital intensity, compared with the production of crop products. Potential market participants in this case require, on the one hand, a sufficiently high amount of investment to enter the market, and, on the other hand, the possibility of using economies of scale, which allows further reduction of production costs. The study confirmed that in agricultural organizations there are more favorable conditions for reducing costs due to economies of scale and, as a result, better conditions are formed for increasing production volumes in a more efficient livestock production sector
Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 10
Abstract. The relevance of this study is determined by the socio-economic importance and priority of the development of industrial horticulture in the Republic of Dagestan. The article discusses the main directions of increasing the provision of the population with fresh fruits, vegetables and products of their processing. The purpose of the article is to reveal the possibilities of restoration and effective functioning of industrial gardening through economic and organizational transformations in the region. The theoretical basis of the research was the works of domestic agricultural economists on the development of agriculture. Economic and statistical methods were used. The information base was the data of the Territorial Body of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Republic of Dagestan, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Dagestan, the Ministry of Economic Development of the Republic of Dagestan. Results. The analysis of the dynamics of absolute and relative indicators is carried out: gross harvest, areas of perennial plantings, yield, balance of resources and use of fruits and berries for the period 2015-2021. It has been established that the rapid growth of quantitative indicators of horticulture development is not accompanied by qualitative changes in the sub-sector, this characterizes this situation rather as a breakthrough, but not development. The structure of fruit and berry production in the region has not changed, and personal subsidiary farms of the population still occupy the leading position (88%). The issues of agricultural consumer cooperation and agro-industrial integration are being updated. The tasks of restoring the basics of horticulture – fruit nursery are revealed. The necessity of organizing basic nurseries in three natural and climatic zones of the republic is indicated. The problems of scientific and organizational-economic support of the sub-sector of horticulture and the fruit processing industry are identified. Conclusions. It is established that the work on the development of industrial horticulture in the region should be aimed at creating favorable infrastructural conditions in rural areas, improving the efficiency of agricultural and processing enterprises, the quality of products, rational use of production resources. The necessity of developing a regional strategy for the development of horticulture has been identified, which, by setting long-term goals, will speed up the solution of topical regional issues of food supply. The materials of the conducted research will be useful in drawing up regional strategies and programs for the development of the fruit subcomplex