Issue № 7, July 2022, article № 1

Expert assessment of rural human capital Belgorod region

The article substantiates the relevance of conducting an expert assessment of rural human capital, which in modern conditions characterized by an increasing level of social exclusion and de-intellectualization of the rural population, as well as the expansion of COVID-19, is an effective impulse to accelerate socio-economic processes and continues to be the most popular resource and determining factor in the formation of the information society. Despite the variety of estimates of human capital, a unified approach to its measurement has not yet been developed. The most difficult problem is the lack of indicators that take into account the peculiarities of the formation and use of human capital in rural areas, which is primarily due to the information "opacity" of data. In addition, the indicators characterizing its qualitative characteristics are important for evaluation. From these positions, the article substantiates a new approach to the analysis of rural human capital, taking into account its main elements: education capital, health capital, social and labor capital and intellectual capital. Comparative and abstract-logical analysis, institutional and systemic approaches, the method of scoring and the method of simplifications were used as research methods. The main result of the study was an assessment of: the general education of rural residents and the state of the education sector; satisfaction of the rural population with their health and the level of medical care; adaptation to rural lifestyle and improvement of cultural level; opportunities for self-realization and the use of professional skills. The study shows a heterogeneous perception of the problems of human capital development by the experts participating in the survey. Some respondents believe that unsatisfactory living conditions in rural areas, the consequences of the pandemic together limit the accumulation of rural human capital, others are convinced that against the background of accelerating digitalization processes, there will be positive changes in its use. In any case, for the gradual transformation of human capital into a significant factor in the development of rural areas, a long-term socio-economic policy aimed at developing the processes of reproduction of human capital with phased implementation in each region of Russia is necessary.

Issue № 7, July 2022, article № 2

On the issue of economic development of rural areas of Russia

The rural area of Russia is two–thirds of the country's land resources, including over 220 million hectares of agricultural land. The share of the rural population in the total population exceeds 25%. Labor and land resources are the basis of the economic potential of society, the country, individual territories and industries. Rural areas are of particular importance in activating this potential, which is possible only when the state creates certain organizational and economic conditions for the development of entrepreneurship and local self-government in rural areas. The article, based on economic and statistical, monographic methods, the method of expert evaluation, provides a critical analysis of the modern development of rural areas of Russia, the expediency of using programmatic and design approaches to solving rural problems, the possibility of using new models and tools of economic organization in practice, in particular, increasing the level of state support for rural (farm) farms, dissemination of best practices of effective work of national enterprises, ancestral estates, the cooperative system "support farmer", development of alternative agricultural activities in rural areas, including agro-tourism and others. Currently, it is advisable to revive strategic planning and regulation of economic and social processes in the rural economy. In the meantime, this is not the case, large business ensures its efficiency to a greater extent due to state support, while small business ensures its own efforts, patriotism and private interest in preserving and increasing its farms and the material well–being of the family. Carefully studying the theory and practice of agrarian relations and reforms in Russia and abroad and competently implementing the best solutions in modern times, it is possible to ensure sustainable economic development of rural areas in our country.

Issue № 7, July 2022, article № 4

Directions of reducing the poverty level of rural population in the Saratov region

The system of scientific views on the problem of poverty of the rural population is considered. The toolkit of social contracts for the poor rural population has been adapted, containing two areas: reducing administrative barriers for participants in contractual relations and a set of measures to improve the conditions for providing assistance, including reforming the conditions for supporting the activities of personal subsidiary farms, focused on increasing real incomes and increasing agricultural production; clarified the concept of "working poor" in relation to potential participants in contractual relations. Directions for reducing rural poverty are recommended by improving the conditions for supporting a social contract, which is a form of agreement between the state and a citizen (family), in which social protection agencies provide assistance to citizens with incomes below the subsistence level. It is concluded that the system of social contracts can effectively increase the real incomes of the population both through direct satisfaction of the vital needs of the population, and through its active involvement in the labor market (due to the acquisition of new specialties and employment), as well as the development of own production within the framework of personal subsidiary farms (as a self-employed citizen). Modern multimedia technologies will make it possible to carry out effective remote support of contracts: to carry out explanatory and consulting work, to accept reporting documents, and so on.

Issue № 7, July 2022, article № 10

Analysis and predicting of grain yields in Russia, taking into account the consequences of global warming

The adaptation of the agricultural sector to the adverse effects of the ongoing climate change is a challenge facing modern agriculture. One of the key signs of climate change is an increase in the average annual air temperature. In the world over the past 100 years, the average air temperature has increased by 2 degrees, especially this trend has accelerated over the past 30 years. Agriculture is one of the types of economic activities sensitive to climate change. In order to develop effective mechanisms to reduce the risks of economic and other types of damage associated with global warming, it is necessary to clearly understand what difficulties each region will face individually, as well as what challenges will be typical for different groups of regions. The purpose of this study is to typologies and further characterize the potential of agriculture in regions with different levels of temperature anomalies in the summer. The main research methods were the method of statistical grouping and correlation and regression analysis. The article presents an interval distribution series that allows us to identify regions with the minimum, average and maximum levels of temperature increase in July in 2003, 2008, 2013, 2014, as well as in the period 1976-2018 in the summer. The characteristics of each group of regions in terms of the potential and conditions of functioning of agriculture in these regions are given. A regression model with a dummy variable is constructed, which makes it possible to assess the impact and further predict grain yields taking into account the observed temperature anomaly. The key conclusion of this study is the fact that a third of Russian regions with a high level of resource potential of agriculture are in the group with an high increase in temperature over the past 40 years, significantly affecting the efficiency of agriculture.