Employment and social protection of the unemployed in the system of factors for overcoming the concentration of russian poverty in rural areas

The article contains a comparative analysis of the level of employment, unemployment and social protection of the unemployed in urban and rural areas of the Russian Federation in the context of the implementation of the national poverty reduction goal. Attention is focused on the fact that the bulk of the rural unemployed are outside the state-regulated labor market and do not receive assistance in finding employment, improving professional competencies, acquiring new professions, and do not have material support. A historical digression into the transformation of the Law of the Russian Federation "On Employment of the Population in the Russian Federation" was made, which showed a generally negative dynamics of the legal foundations of social protection of the unemployed. The expert assessment of the currently implemented program-targeted approach to the regulation of employment and unemployment in rural areas is given, the main directions and measures to improve the situation in the rural labor market as a key factor in overcoming the concentration of Russian poverty in rural areas are proposed. It is noted that the strategic direction of increasing rural employment and reducing unemployment is the sectoral diversification of the rural economy, updated as the technical and technological modernization of production, which reduces the need for labor. The activity of employment services of the population is considered, the appeal to which rural citizens engaged in job search remains low. The proposals on the main directions of employment policy in rural areas and social protection of rural unemployed are substantiated.

The social sphere of the russian village within the framework of the implementation of harmonious spatial development

The article considers the social sphere of the Russian countryside as an element of the social infrastructure of Russian rural territories within the framework of the concept of harmonious spatial development, which is currently being implemented in Russian economic science and management practice. The article reveals the main manifestations of the essence and content of harmonious spatial development, formulates its definition based on the analysis of relevant scientific and methodological literature, identifies essential basic features and main manifestations from the point of view of a systematic approach to territorial management. The article analyzes several examples of the implementation of harmonious spatial development within the framework of the social development of the village. The essential importance of the concept of harmonious spatial development in determining the promising directions for the development of the Russian village and its social sphere in certain regions of Russia is noted. The paper indicates the essential importance of the social sphere of Russian rural areas as a basic element of harmonious spatial development, both of rural areas and of the Russian agro-industrial complex. It is noted that the elements of the social sphere of the Russian countryside are of fundamental importance for the formation of the social base of the agricultural economy and increasing the importance of rural areas in the framework of the integrated development of Russian regions. The article also formulated a number of recommendations to ensure the development of the social sphere of the Russian village in the framework of the implementation of harmonious spatial development. In particular, in conclusion, conclusions are drawn that it is necessary to pay special attention to the essential features of the social sphere of the Russian village as a basic element of harmonious spatial development in general.

Economic accessibility of food to the population of Russia: national aspect

The agrarian policy pursued in Russia is primarily aimed at ensuring food security, the main components of which are the economic and physical availability of food to the population. The paper attempts, based on the available analytical data, to make an assessment of the economic availability of food at the national level in the context of decile and socio-demographic groups, to identify the main factors constraining bringing the level of food consumption by the population to rational norms. The analysis showed that, on the one hand, the production volumes of milk, vegetables, potatoes, fruits and berries are insufficient. On the other hand, the growth rate of household incomes is significantly lower than the growth rate of consumer prices for food, which does not contribute to the growth of demand for food. This situation does not stimulate the production of the above-mentioned types of agricultural products. It is possible to solve this problem by using macroeconomic measures to increase the incomes of the population, primarily the poor. In order to increase the production of agricultural products, it is necessary to revise the set of measures and mechanisms of state support for agricultural producers. Priority should be given to dairy cattle breeding, fruit and berry subcomplex, vegetable and potato production. To solve the problem of ensuring food security, it is necessary to more actively involve small forms of management. At the same time, their state support is needed, which will help not only to increase their competitiveness in the market of agricultural products and food, but will also contribute to increasing the economic accessibility of food to the population of the Russia.

New industrialization of the agro-industrial complex of Russia as a basis for import substitution in modern geopolitical conditions

The article is devoted to the industrialization of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation based on the development of industry innovation systems. The necessity in the system of expanded reproduction of high-tech capital brought into full compliance with the law of vertical integration is substantiated. The symbiosis of the state, science and business as the basis of import substitution in modern geopolitical conditions is shown. It is noted that the stabilization of the domestic market will occur as an alternative policy becomes established, interaction with foreign partners and the development of parallel import channels with friendly states. It is stated that the country has not created a single center for coordination, forecasting and expertise of scientific and technical developments in the agricultural sector. Coordination in the field of innovative development of agro-industrial production between the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia is not carried out at the proper level. The paper identifies the main directions of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex of the country and the structural elements of their implementation. The role and significance of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2030, which is designed to remove the dependence of the domestic agricultural sector on Western technologies, is determined. Proposals of an organizational and economic nature to ensure technological sovereignty in the agricultural sector of the country's economy are formulated.

New approaches to the development of russian agriculture in the context of increasing global economic instability

The purpose of the study was to analyze the development of Russian agriculture in the context of global economic instability and identify new approaches to the development process. Russian agriculture, being a high-tech industry, ensures the sustainable development of the national economy, food security in difficult climatic and economic conditions. According to the author, it is advisable to include the existing macroeconomic factors characterized by the introduction of restrictions on export-import operations and the localization of regional food markets among the factors significantly affecting the development of Russian agriculture in modern conditions. The analysis of statistical material revealed a decrease in the share of imported food products in the commodity resources of the food retail trade in Russia from 35% to 24 percent, with a significant increase in the volumes and indices of agricultural production by domestic producers. It is concluded that in order to ensure the sustainable development of Russian agriculture in the conditions of sanctions and limited available resources, technological modernization of the existing production capacities of economic entities is necessary, based on the use of developments and technologies of domestic agricultural science, which will ensure the technological independence of the industry. At the same time, the development of digitalization of agriculture will also contribute to the construction of highly competitive and efficient agriculture in Russia.